Language Arts Standards K-5

Language Standards

Conventions of Standard English

Kindergarten

First Grade

Second Grade

 

1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

a. Print many uppercase and lowercase letters.

b. Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs.

c. Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/ or /es/ (e.g., dog, dogs; wish, wishes).

d. Understand and use question words (interrogatives) (e.g., who, what, where, when, why, how).

e. Use the most frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., to, from, in, out, on, off, for, of, by, with).

f. Produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities.

 

 

1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

a. Print all uppercase and lowercase letters.

b. Use common, proper, and possessive nouns.

c. Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences (e.g., He hops; We hop).

d. Use personal (subject, object), possessive, and indefinite pronouns (e.g., I, me, my; they, them, their, anyone, everything).

e. Use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, and future (e.g., Yesterday I walked home; Today I walk home; Tomorrow I will walk home).

f. Use frequently occurring adjectives.

g. Use frequently occurring conjunctions (e.g., and, but, or, so, because).

h. Use determiners (e.g., articles, demonstratives).

i. Use frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., during, beyond, toward).

j. Produce and expand complete simple and compound declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences in response to prompts.

 

 

1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

a. Create readable documents with legible print.

b. Use collective nouns (e.g., group).

c. Form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns (e.g., feet, children, teeth, mice, fish).

d. Use reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves).

e. Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs (e.g., sat, hid, told).

f. Use adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.

g. Produce, expand, and rearrange complete simple and compound sentences (e.g., The boy watched the movie; The little boy watched the movie; The action movie was watched by the little boy).

 

 

2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

a. Capitalize the first word in a sentence and the pronoun I.

b. Recognize and name end punctuation.

c. Write a letter or letters for most consonant and short-vowel sounds (phonemes).

d. Spell simple words phonetically, drawing on knowledge of sound-letter relationships.

 

 

2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

a. Capitalize dates and names of people.

b. Use end punctuation for sentences.

c. Use commas in dates and to separate single words in a series.

d. Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns and for frequently occurring irregular words.

e. Spell untaught words phonetically, drawing on phonemic awareness and spelling conventions.

 

 

2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

a. Capitalize holidays, product names, and geographic names.

b. Use commas in greetings and closings of letters.

c. Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives.

d. Generalize learned spelling patterns when writing words (e.g., cage badge; boy boil).

e. Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.

(Begins in grade 2.)

(Begins in grade 2.)

 

3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

a. Compare formal and informal uses of English.

Third Grade

Fourth Grade

Fifth Grade

 

1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

a. Write legibly in cursive or joined italics, allowing margins and correct spacing between letters in a word and words in a sentence.

b. Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences.

c. Use reciprocal pronouns correctly.

d. Form and use regular and irregular plural nouns.

e. Use abstract nouns (e.g., childhood).

f. Form and use regular and irregular verbs.

g. Form and use the simple (e.g., I walked; I walk; I will walk) verb tenses.

h. Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement.*

i. Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.

 

 

1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

a. Write fluidly and legibly in cursive or joined italics.

b. Use interrogative, relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why).

c. Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses.

d. Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions.

e. Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag).

f. Form and use prepositional phrases.

g. Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.*

h. Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their).*

 

 

1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

a. Explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections in general and their function in particular sentences.

b. Form and use the perfect (e.g., I had walked; I have walked; I will have walked) verb tenses.

c. Use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions.

d. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense.*

e. Use correlative conjunctions (e.g., either/or, neither/nor).

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