U3E3 Apuntes: Weather / tener phrases / DOP's / the progressive (MP p 77-80)

I.  Describing the weather
   ¿Qué tiempo hace?       Hace...                                             Hay...                                                  Verbs (sentences)
                                                   ...calor (100 grados)                     ...sol   (need gafas del sol")              Llueve (get an umbrella)
                                                   ...frío    ( 32 grados)                       ...viento (good for flying kites)           Nieva (build a snowman)
                                                   ...sol    (need "gafas del sol")                                                                     Está nublado (white puffies)
                                                   ...viento (go fly a kite)
                                                   ...buen tiempo  (good weather)
                                                   ...mal tiempo    (bad weather)
                                                   ...fresco    (65 grados)
II.  Expressions with Tener         Tengo + ___ años                    Tienes + miedo (fight or flight)            Tenemos ganas de...
    "I have = I am"                                       + calor (take off coat)                  + prisa  (run, don't walk)                                 + infinitive
   using "tener" sometimes                    + frío   (put on coat)                      + razón  (2+2 = 4)                                             + bailar
   creates "special meanings"               + hambre (buy food)                    + sueño (take a nap)                                       + jugar
                                                                     + sed (buy water)                         + suerte (you won the raffle)                          + comer
III.  Direct Object Pronouns (DOP)
   What's a Direct Object (DO)?         The Direct Object (DO) in a sentence receives the action of the verb.
                                                                 The DO also answers the question, "What?" or "Who?"
                                                                 Examples:  He watches the game.  He watches what?   the game = the DO
                                                                                        We see Dr. P.  We see who?  Dr. P = the DO
   What's a DOP?                    The DOP takes the place of the DO.   He watches itIt took the place of "the game"
                                                                                                  We see him.   Him took the place of Dr. P
                                                   In Spanish, the DOP is placed before the conjugated verb (Nosotros la vemos) or
                                                   attached to an infinitive verb (Queremos verla...Necesitamos verla
   What are the DOP's?                        DOP's (Español)                        DOP's (English)
                                                             1.  me         11. nos                       1. me                  11. us
                                                             2.  te            22. os                         2. you                  22. y'all
                                                             3.  lo / la      33. los / las               3. it / him / her   33. them
   Un buen ejemplo                           Necesito sacar fotos.   Las quiero sacar hoy.    Quiero sacarlas en el parque. 
IV.   Saying What is happening: the Present Progressive / the Gerund
   How do I form this tense?               use the present tense of estar + the present participle
                                                                                                                     ESTAR + "-AR" VERB
                                                                                                   1.  estoy hablando      11.  estamos hablando
                                                                                                   2.  estás hablando      22.  estáis hablando
                                                                                                   3.  está hablando         33.  están hablando
                                                                                                                     ESTAR + "-ER" OR "-IR"
                                                                                    1.  estoy comiendo y escribiendo         11.  estamos comiendo y escribiendo
                                                                                    2.  estás comiendo y ecscibiendo         22.  estáis comiendo y escribiendo
                                                                                     3.  está comiendo y escribiendo         33.  están comiendo y escribiendo
   Formula for the present participles:            -ar verbs = habl -ar + -ando = hablando      
   -ar, -er and -ir verbs                                         -er verbs = com -er + -iendo = comiendo
                                                                                -ir verbs = escrib -ir = iendo = escribiendo
   If  the stem  of an -er or -ir verb                 leer > is not leiendo, but instead, is leyendo (easier to pronounce)
   ends in a vowel,then "-iendo"                   oír . is not oiendo, but oyendo (much easier to pronounce)
   becomes "-yendo"                                      creer . is not creiendo, but creyendo (also easier to pronounce)