General Summary of Minors’ Work Regulations
- If federal laws, state laws and school district policies conflict, the more restrictive law (that which is most protective of the employee) prevails.
- Generally, minors must attend school until age 18 unless they are 16 years or older and have graduated from high school or received a state Certificate of Proficiency. <
- Employers of minors required to attend school must complete a “Statement of Intent to Employ Minor and Request for Work Permit” (form B1-1) for the school district of attendance for each such minor.
- Employers must retain a “Permit to Employ and Work” (form B1-4) for each such minor.
- Work permits (B1-4) must be retained for three years and open at all times for inspection by sanctioned authorities.
- A work permit (B1-4) must be revoked whenever the issuing authority determines the employment is illegal or is impairing the health or education of the minor.
For more information about hazardous occupations, contact the U.S. Department of Labor (Child Labor Bulletins 101 and 102) and the California Department of Industrial Relations, Division of Labor Standards Enforcement. Regional offices are located in several California cities. They are listed in the “Government Listings” sections of telephone directories.
- Minors younger than 16 years are allowed to work only in limited, specified occupations which exclude baking, manufacturing, processing, construction, warehouse, and transportation occupations.
- In addition to safety regulations, labor laws applicable to adult employees are also generally applicable to minor employees , including workers' compensation insurance requirements.
- Child labor laws do not generally apply to minors who deliver newspapers or work at odd jobs, such as yard work and baby-sitting, or in private homes where the minor is not regularly employed.
- A day of rest from work is required if the total hours worked per week exceed 30 or if more than 6 ours are worked on any one day during the week.
Hours of WorkStudents age 16-17
- When school is in session: Daily maximum 4 hours, Monday through Thursday. May work up to 8 hours on any nonschool day or on any day that precedes a nonschool day. May be permitted to work up to 48 hours per week. Students in Work Experience Education programs may be permitted to work a maximum of 8 hours on a schoolday.
- When school not in session: May work up to 48 hours per week but no more than 8 hours in any one day.
- Work must be performed no earlier than 5:00 a.m. nor later than 10:00 p.m. except that work may extend to 12:30 a.m. on nights preceding nonschool days. Students in Work Experience Education programs may be authorized to work until 12:30 a.m. on nights preceding school days with specified written permission.
Students Age 14 – 15
- When school is in session: On schooldays, daily maximum 3 hours. On non-schooldays may work 8 hours. Weekly maximum 18 hours. Students in Work Experience Education and career exploration programs may work up to 23 hours per week.
- When school is not in session: Daily maximum 8 hours and weekly maximum 40 hours.
Students may not work during public school hours EXCEPT:
- Students in Work Experience Education or career exploration programs. Work must be performed no earlier than 7:00 a.m. nor later than 7:00 p.m. any day of the week. From June 1 to Labor Day work hours may be extended to 9:00 p.m.
- Younger than 14: Labor laws generally prohibit nonfarm employment of children younger than 14. Special rules apply to agricultural work, domestic work and the entertainment industry.
Work Permit Turnaround Time (24 to 48 hours)